NAS Award in the Neurosciences
Der NAS Award in the Neurosciences (National Academy of Sciences Award in the Neurosciences) ist ein von der National Academy of Sciences der Vereinigten Staaten seit 1988 etwa alle drei Jahre vergebener Wissenschaftspreis auf dem Gebiet der Neurowissenschaften. Das auszuzeichnende Gebiet umfasst Neurochemie, Neurophysiologie, Neuropharmakologie, Entwicklungs-Neurowissenschaften, Neuroanatomie, Verhaltens-Neurowissenschaften und klinische Neurowissenschaften.
- 1988 Seymour S. Kety, Louis Sokoloff: For developing techniques to measure brain blood flow and metabolism -- valuable tools in the study of brain function that have major applications in clinical medicine.
- 1991 Paul Greengard: For his discovery of the central role played by neuronal phosphoproteins in normal brain function as well as in neuropsychiatric and related disorders.
- 1994 Walle J. H. Nauta: For development of a powerful method for determining connectivity among specific brain sites and thus establishing now-classical circuits in the limbic system.
- 1998 Vernon B. Mountcastle: For his discovery of the columnar organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex and for original studies relating behavior to function of single cells in higher cortical areas.
- 2001 Seymour Benzer: For his pioneering contributions which have brought neurogenetics to maturity. Benzer's discoveries in fruit flies have identified specific genes contributing to behaviors of central importance.
- 2004 Brenda Milner: For her pioneering and seminal investigations of the functioning of the temporal lobes and other brain regions in learning, memory, and speech.
- 2007 Jean-Pierre Changeux: For the pioneering discovery that fast-acting neurotransmitters mediate their effects through allosteric regulation of the neurotransmitter protein.
- 2010 Roger A. Nicoll: For his seminal discoveries elucidating cellular and molecular bases for synaptic plasticity in the brain.
- 2013 Solomon H. Snyder: For his groundbreaking work on opiate receptors, gaseous signaling in the nervous system, and numerous other contributions to our understanding of neuropharmacological processes.
- 2016 Mortimer Mishkin: For fundamental contributions to understanding the functional organization of the primate brain, including discovery of the visual functions of inferior temporal cortex, the role of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in spatial and object processing, and anatomical descriptions of cognitive and non-cognitive memory systems.
- 2019 Eve Marder: For her body of work that has transformed the perception of neuronal circuits as static structures well-described by connectivity diagrams, to our current understanding of microcircuits as flexible and dynamic entities that efficiently balance the needs for plasticity and stability.